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Glaucoma occurs when a build-up of fluid creates pressure in the eye, which then damages the Optic nerve. The optic nerve is responsible for the transmission of information from the eyes to the brain, and damage associated with it can lead to severe vision loss, and in the worst case, blindness. Glaucoma is a leading cause of preventable blindness in the U.S. affecting about 3 million people. A comprehensive eye exam includes testing for glaucoma



Glaucoma often develops with no symptoms, making it impossible for patients to detect until significant (and irreversible) damage has been done.
In the case of acute closed-angle glaucoma, symptoms will be sudden and severe, including:

  • Blurred vision

  • Severe Eye Pain

  • Headache & Rainbow Haloes

  • Nausea and vomiting

Note : Don’t wait for surgery till the cataract matures completely. Surgery can be done in any season with the help of Modern Technology (PHACO Emulsification- No Stitch Technique). It is not necessary to take bed rest or take any special precaution after surgery. A cataract which creates problem in daily work should be operated upon immediately.

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Who is at Risk for Glaucoma?

Most glaucomas remain asymptomatic until advanced stages that is why it is called silent killer of sight. Few alarming symptoms may be

  • Pain around the eyes when coming out from coloured halo rings seen around light bulbs especially in the mornings and nights

  • Frequent change of reading glasses, headaches, pain, and redness of the eyes

  • Reduced vision in dim illumination and during nights

  • Gradual decrease of side vision with the progression of glaucoma

Glaucoma is detected through a comprehensive eye exam that includes:


Visual Acuity Test : This eye chart test measures how well you see at various distances.

Visual Field Test : This test measures your side (peripheral) vision. It helps your eye care professional tell if you have lost side vision, a sign of glaucoma.

Dilated Eye Exam : Drops are placed in your eyes to widen, or dilate, the pupils. Your eye care professional uses a special magnifying lens to examine your retina and optic nerve for signs of damage and other eye problems. After the exam, your close-up vision may remain blurred for several hours.

Tonometry : An instrument measures the pressure inside the eye. Numbing drops may be applied to your eye for this test.

Pachymetry :  A numbing drop is applied to your eye. Your eye care professional uses an ultrasonic wave instrument to measure the thickness of your cornea.

Types Of Glaucoma

Open-Angle Glaucoma

It happens when the eye’s drainage canals become clogged over time. The inner eye pressure (also called intraocular pressure or IOP) rises because the correct amount of fluid can’t drain out of the eye. With open-angle glaucoma, the entrances to the drainage canals are clear and open. The clogging problem occurs further inside the drainage canals, similar to a clogged pipe below the drain in a sink. Most people have no symptoms and no early warning signs. If open-angle glaucoma is not diagnosed and treated, it can cause a gradual loss of vision. This type of glaucoma develops slowly and sometimes without noticeable sight loss for many years. It usually responds well to medication, especially if caught early and treated. This form of glaucoma is more common in Caucasians than others.

Angle-Closure Glaucoma

This type of glaucoma is also known as acute glaucoma or narrow-angle glaucoma. It is more common in Asians and is very different from open-angle glaucoma in which the eye pressure usually rises very quickly. It happens when the entrance to the drainage canals is very narrow or covered over, like a sink with something covering the drain. Symptoms of angle closure glaucoma may include headaches, eye pain, nausea, rainbows around lights at night, and very blurred vision.

Low-Tension or Normal-Tension Glaucoma

In this type of glaucoma, the optic nerve is damaged even though intraocular pressure (IOP) is not very high. Lowering eye pressure by at least 30 percent through medicines slows the disease in some people. A comprehensive medical history is essential in identifying other potential risk factors, such as low blood pressure, that contribute to low-tension glaucoma. If no risk factors are identified, the treatment options for low-tension glaucoma are the same as for open-angle glaucoma.

Congenital Glaucoma

Children are born with a defect in the angle of the eye that slows the normal drainage of fluid. These children usually have visible symptoms, such as cloudy eyes, sensitivity to light, and excessive tearing. Conventional surgery typically is the suggested treatment, because medicines may have unknown effects in infants and be difficult to administer. The operation is safe and effective. If surgery is done promptly, these children usually have an excellent chance of having good vision.

Secondary Glaucoma Types

These can develop as complications of other medical conditions. These types of glaucoma are sometimes associated with eye surgery or advanced cataracts, eye injuries, certain eye tumors, or uveitis (eye inflammation). Pigmentary glaucoma occurs when pigment from the iris flakes off and blocks the meshwork, slowing fluid drainage. A severe form, called neovascular glaucoma, is linked to diabetes. Corticosteroid drugs used to treat eye inflammations, and other diseases can trigger glaucoma in some people. Treatment includes medicines, laser surgery, or conventional surgery.

What can I do to Protect my Vision?

Studies have shown that the early detection and treatment of glaucoma, before it causes major vision loss, is the best way to control the disease. So, if you fall into one of the high-risk groups for the disease, make sure to have your eyes examined through dilated pupils every two years by an eye care professional.

If you are being treated for glaucoma, be sure to take your glaucoma medicine every day. See your eye care professional regularly.

You also can help protect the vision of family members and friends who may be at high risk for glaucoma. Encourage them to have a comprehensive dilated eye exam at least once every two years. Remember: Lowering eye pressure in glaucoma’s early stages slows progression of the disease and helps save vision.


  • Glaucoma cannot be cured, only controlled.

  • Vision lost due to glaucoma cannot be re covered.

  • Early detection and treatment of glaucoma, before it causes significant visual loss, is the ideal way to control the disease.

  • It is essential that persons above the age of 40 have their eyes examined periodically to detect glaucoma early.

  • Glaucoma is hereditary. So, if any one in the family has glaucoma, it is advisable that the rest of the family members have their eyes examined, periodically.

  • Once diagnosed as having glaucoma, the patient should be committed for lifelong treatment and periodical eye check-up.

  • Drugs prescribed should be regularly used at specified time, to ensure round-the-clock pressure control. Medications may cause a few undesired effects. In the event of any adverse effect, the patient must approach the ophthalmologist immediately for alternate treatment.